Skip to main content
  • Estimating the Global Incidence of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Final Number:

    Abbas Rattani; Michael C. Dewan MD; Saksham Gupta BA; Ronnie MD Baticulon; Ya Ching Hung; Maria Punchak; Amit Agrawal; Amos O Adeleye; Mark G. Shrime; Andres Mariano Rubiano MD; Jeffrey Victor Rosenfeld MD; Kee B. Park

    Study Design:

    Subject Category:

    Meeting: Congress of Neurological Surgeons 2017 Annual Meeting

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) – the ‘silent epidemic’ – contributes more to death and disability worldwide than any other traumatic insult. Yet, TBI incidence and distribution across regions and socioeconomic divides remain unknown. In an effort to promote advocacy, understanding, and targeted intervention, we sought to quantify the case burden of TBI across World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank (WB) income groups.

    Methods: Incidence of RTI published by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 was used to calculate the incidence and estimated case volume of TBI for each WHO region and WB income groups. A series of meta-analyses were performed on systematically reviewed literature to derive proportions for TBI among road traffic injuries (RTI) and a ratio of RTI contributing to overall TBI.

    Results: Sixty-nine million [64-74 million] individuals worldwide are estimated to sustain TBI each year. The proportion of TBI resulting from road traffic collisions was greatest in Africa and South-East Asia (both 56%) and lowest in North America (25%). The incidence of RTI was similar in South-East Asia (1.5% of population per year) and Europe (1.2%). Overall incidence of TBI per 100,000 people was greatest in North America (1,299; 95% CI [612-1,986]) and Europe (1,012; 95% CI [907-1,117]), and least in Africa (801; 95% CI [730-873]) and the Eastern Mediterranean (897; 95% CI [767-1,027]). Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experience nearly three times more cases of TBI than high-income countries.

    Conclusions: South-East Asian and Western Pacific regions experience the greatest overall burden of TBI each year. Head injury following RTI is more common in LMICs, and the proportion of TBI secondary to RTI is likewise greatest in these countries. Meanwhile, the estimated incidence of TBI is highest in regions from where higher-quality data exist, specifically in North America and Europe.

    Patient Care: A tremendous burden – approximately 69 million cases – of TBI can be expected each year. The vast majority of this burden affects populations in LMICs, where adequate healthcare resources are often either inaccessible or nonexistent. Examining the disease burden between regions and comparing against available resources allow identification of such deficits in existing healthcare coverage. More robust research, especially in LMICs where high-quality data are deficient, is essential for a targeted campaign. Ultimately, curbing the silent epidemic of TBI will require a multipronged effort toward public awareness, safety legislation and enforcement, injury prevention campaigns, healthcare capacity strengthening, and community-based efforts to promote recovery and rehabilitation.

    Learning Objectives: To estimate the global incidence of traumatic brain injury To demonstrate the use of modelling to derive incidence figures from global disease databases

    References: 1. Adekoya N, Majumder R: Fatal traumatic brain injury, West Virginia, 1989-1998. Public Health Rep 119:486–492, 2004 2. Adeleye AO, Olowookere KG, Olayemi OO: Clinicoepidemiological profiles and outcomes during first hospital admission of head injury patients in Ikeja, Nigeria. A prospective cohort study. Neuroepidemiology 32:136–141, 2009 3. Aenderl I, Gashaw T, Siebeck M, Mutschler W: Head injury--a neglected public health problem: a four-month prospective study at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci 24:27–34, 2014 4. Agarwal-Harding KJ, Meara JG, Greenberg SLM, Hagander LE, Zurakowski D, Dyer GSM: Estimating the global incidence of femoral fracture from road traffic collisions: a literature review. J Bone Joint Surg Am 97:e31–e31, 2015 5. Agius S, Ansari S, Zrinzo A: Pattern of head injuries in Malta (EU): a small Mediterranean island. Br J Neurosurg 26:212–215, 2012 6. Agrawal A, Agrawal CS, Kumar A, Lewis O, Malla G, Khatiwada R, et al: Epidemiology and management of paediatric head injury in eastern Nepal. Afr J Paediatr Surg 5:15–18, 2008 7. Agrawal A, Galwankar S, Kapil V, Coronado V, Basavaraju SV, McGuire LC, et al: Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of traumatic brain injuries in a rural setting in Maharashtra, India. 2007-2009. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2:167–171, 2012 8. Agrawal D, Ahmed S, Khan S, Gupta D, Sinha S, Satyarthee GD: Outcome in 2068 patients of head injury: Experience at a level 1 trauma centre in India. Asian J Neurosurg 11:143–3, 2016 9. Akama MK, Chindia ML, Macigo FG, Guthua SW: Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents. East Afr Med J 84:287–295, 2007 10. Al-Habib A, A-Shail A, Alaqeel A, Alqeel A, Zamakhshary M, Al-Bedah K, et al: Causes and patterns of adult traumatic head injuries in Saudi Arabia: implications for injury prevention. Ann Saudi Med 33:351–355, 2013 11. Ala-Seppälä H, Heino I, Frantzén J, Takala RSK, Katila AJ, Kyllönen A, et al: Injury profiles, demography and representativeness of patients with TBI attending a regional emergency department. Brain Inj 30:1062–1067, 2016 12. Albrecht JS, Hirshon JM, McCunn M, Bechtold KT, Rao V, Simoni-Wastila L, et al: Increased Rates of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Among Older Adults in US Emergency Departments, 2009-2010. J Head Trauma Rehabil 31:E1–7, 2016 13. Aldawood AS, Alsultan M, Haddad S, Alqahtani SM, Tamim H, Arabi YM: Trauma profile at a tertiary intensive care unit in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 32:498–501, 2012 14. Alhabdan S, Zamakhshary M, AlNaimi M, Mandora H, Alhamdan M, Al-Bedah K, et al: Epidemiology of traumatic head injury in children and adolescents in a major trauma center in Saudi Arabia: implications for injury prevention. Ann Saudi Med 33:52–56, 2013 15. Amaranath JE, Ramanan M, Reagh J, Saekang E, Prasad N, Chaseling R, et al: Epidemiology of traumatic head injury from a major paediatric trauma centre in New South Wales, Australia. ANZ J Surg 84:424–428, 2014 16. Andelic N, Anke A, Skandsen T, Sigurdardottir S, Sandhaug M, Ader T, et al: Incidence of hospital-admitted severe traumatic brain injury and in-hospital fatality in Norway: a national cohort study. Neuroepidemiology 38:259–267, 2012 17. Andelic N, Sigurdardottir S, Brunborg C, Roe C: Incidence of hospital-treated traumatic brain injury in the Oslo population. Neuroepidemiology 30:120–128, 2008 18. Andersson EH, Björklund R, Emanuelson I, Stålhammar D: Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury: a population based study in western Sweden. Acta Neurol Scand 107:256–259, 2003 19. Andriessen TMJC, Horn J, Franschman G, van der Naalt J, Haitsma I, Jacobs B, et al: Epidemiology, Severity Classification, and Outcome of Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Multicenter Study. J Neurotrauma 28:2019–2031, 2011 20. Ao Te B, Tobias M, Ameratunga S, McPherson K, Theadom A, Dowell A, et al: Burden of Traumatic Brain Injury in New Zealand: Incidence, Prevalence and Disability-Adjusted Life Years. Neuroepidemiology 44:255–261, 2015 21. Arnarson EO, Halldórsson JG: Head trauma among children in Reykjavík. Acta Paediatrica 84:96–99, 1995 22. Asemota AO, George BP, Bowman SM, Haider AH, Schneider EB: Causes and trends in traumatic brain injury for United States adolescents. J Neurotrauma 30:67–75, 2013 23. Atzema C, Mower WR, Hoffman JR, Holmes JF, Killian AJ, Wolfson AB, et al: Prevalence and prognosis of traumatic intraventricular hemorrhage in patients with blunt head trauma. J Trauma 60:1010–7– discussion 1017, 2006 24. Avesani R, Roncari L, Khansefid M, Formisano R, Boldrini P, Zampolini M, et al: The Italian National Registry of severe acquired brain injury: epidemiological, clinical and functional data of 1469 patients. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 49:611–618, 2013 25. Bachani AM, Koradia P, Herbert HK, Mogere S, Akungah D, Nyamari J, et al: Road traffic injuries in Kenya: the health burden and risk factors in two districts. Traffic Inj Prev 13 Suppl 1:24–30, 2012 26. Bahloul M, Chelly H, Ben Hmida M, Ben Hamida C, Ksibi H, Kallel H, et al: Prognosis of traumatic head injury in South Tunisia: a multivariate analysis of 437 cases. J Trauma 57:255–261, 2004 27. Bahloul M, Chelly H, Gargouri R, Dammak H, Kallel H, Ben Hamida C, et al: [Traumatic head injury in children in south Tunisia epidemiology, clinical manifestations and evolution. 454 cases]. Tunis Med 87:28–37, 2009 28. Bajracharya A, Agrawal A, Yam B, Agrawal C, Lewis O: Spectrum of surgical trauma and associated head injuries at a university hospital in eastern Nepal. J Neurosci Rural Pract 1:2–8, 2010 29. Baldo V, Marcolongo A, Floreani A, Majori S, Cristofolettil M, Dal Zotto A, et al: Epidemiological aspect of traumatic brain injury in Northeast Italy. Eur J Epidemiol 18:1059–1063, 2003 30. Banthia P, Koirala B, Rauniyar A, Chaudhary D, Kharel T, Khadka SB: An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases attending emergency department of teaching hospital. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 45:238–243, 2006 31. Barker-Collo SL, Wilde NJ, Feigin VL: Trends in head injury incidence in New Zealand: a hospital-based study from 1997/1998 to 2003/2004. Neuroepidemiology 32:32–39, 2009 32. Bayreuther J, Wagener S, Woodford M, Edwards A, Lecky F, Bouamra O, et al: Paediatric trauma: injury pattern and mortality in the UK. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 94:37–41, 2009 33. Bener A, Abdul Rahman YS, Abdel Aleem EY, Khalid MK: Trends and Characteristics of Head and Neck Injury from Falls: A hospital based study, Qatar. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 11:244–251, 2011 34. Bener A, Omar AOK, Ahmad AE, Al-Mulla FH, Abdul Rahman YS: The pattern of traumatic brain injuries: A country undergoing rapid development. Brain Inj 24:74–80, 2010 35. Berry JG, Jamieson LM, Harrison JE: Head and traumatic brain injuries among Australian children, July 2000-June 2006. Inj Prev 16:198–202, 2010 36. Bhatti J, Stevens K, Mir M, Hyder AA, Razzak J: Emergency care of traumatic brain injuries in Pakistan: a multicenter study. BMC Emerg Med 15 Suppl 2:S12, 2015 37. Boniface R, Museru L, Kiloloma O, Munthali V: Factors associated with road traffic injuries in Tanzania. Pan Afr Med J 23:46, 2016 38. Bowman SM, Bird TM, Aitken ME, Tilford JM: Trends in hospitalizations associated with pediatric traumatic brain injuries. Pediatrics 122:988–993, 2008 39. Brazinova A, Mauritz W, Majdan M, Rehorcikova V, Leitgeb J: Fatal traumatic brain injury in older adults in Austria 1980-2012: an analysis of 33 years. Age Ageing 44:502–506, 2015 40. Bryan-Hancock C, Harrison J: The global burden of traumatic brain injury: preliminary results from the Global Burden of Disease Project. Inj Prev 16:A17–A17, 2011 41. Burrows P, Trefan L, Houston R, Hughes J, Pearson G, Edwards RJ, et al: Head injury from falls in children younger than 6 years of age. Archives of Disease in Childhood 100:1032–1037, 2015 42. Cadotte DW, Vachhrajani S, Pirouzmand F: The epidemiological trends of head injury in the largest Canadian adult trauma center from 1986 to 2007. J Neurosurg 114:1502–1509, 2011 43. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Incidence rates of hospitalization related to traumatic brain injury--12 states, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55:201–204, 2006 44. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Rates of hospitalization related to traumatic brain injury--nine states, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56:167–170, 2007 45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Traumatic brain injury in the United States: Emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002-2006. US Department of Health and Human Services:2010 46. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Traumatic brain injury--Colorado, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Utah, 1990-1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 46:8–11, 1997 47. Chalya PL, Mabula JB, Dass RM, Mbelenge N, Ngayomela IH, Chandika AB, et al: Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic crash victims at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania. J Trauma Manag Outcomes 6:1, 2012 48. Chan HC, Aasim WAW, Abdullah NM, Naing NN, Abdullah JM, Saffari MHM, et al: Characteristics and clinical predictors of minor head injury in children presenting to two Malaysian accident and emergency departments. Singapore Med J 46:219–223, 2005 49. Chan V, Zagorski B, Parsons D, Colantonio A: Older adults with acquired brain injury: a population based study. BMC Geriatr 13:97, 2013 50. Cheng P-L, Lin H-Y, Lee Y-K, Hsu C-Y, Lee C-C, Su Y-C: Higher mortality rates among the elderly with mild traumatic brain injury: a nationwide cohort study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 22:7, 2014 51. Chiavaroli F, Derraik JGB, Zani G, Lavezzi S, Chiavaroli V, Sherwin E, et al: Epidemiology and clinical outcomes in a multicentre regional cohort of patients with severe acquired brain injury. Disabil Rehabil 38:2038–2046, 2016 52. Chinda JY, Abubakar AM, Umaru H, Tahir C, Adamu S, Wabada S: Epidemiology and management of head injury in paediatric age group in North-Eastern Nigeria. Afr J Paediatr Surg 10:358–361, 2013 53. Chiu W-T, Huang S-J, Tsai S-H, Lin J-W, Tsai M-D, Lin T-J, et al: The impact of time, legislation, and geography on the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. J Clin Neurosci 14:930–935, 2007 54. Chong S-L, Chew SY, Feng JXY, Teo PYL, Chin ST, Liu N, et al: A prospective surveillance of paediatric head injuries in Singapore: a dual-centre study. BMJ Open 6:e010618, 2016 55. Colantonio A, Croxford R, Farooq S, Laporte A, Coyte PC: Trends in hospitalization associated with traumatic brain injury in a publicly insured population, 1992-2002. J Trauma 66:179–183, 2009 56. Colantonio A, Saverino C, Zagorski B, Swaine B, Lewko J, Jaglal S, et al: Hospitalizations and emergency department visits for TBI in Ontario. Can J Neurol Sci 37:783–790, 2010 57. Compagnone C, d'Avella D, Servadei F, Angileri FF, Brambilla G, Conti C, et al: Patients with moderate head injury: a prospective multicenter study of 315 patients. Neurosurgery 64:690–6– discussion 696–7, 2009 58. Coronado VG, McGuire LC, Sarmiento K, Bell J, Lionbarger MR, Jones CD, et al: Trends in Traumatic Brain Injury in the U.S. and the public health response: 1995-2009. J Safety Res 43:299–307, 2012 59. Crowe LM, Catroppa C, Anderson V, Babl FE: Head injuries in children under 3 years. Injury 43:2141–2145, 2012 60. Crowe L, Babl F, Anderson V, Catroppa C: The epidemiology of paediatric head injuries: Data from a referral centre in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 45:346–350, 2009 61. Cuthbert JP, Harrison-Felix C, Corrigan JD, Kreider S, Bell JM, Coronado VG, et al: Epidemiology of adults receiving acute inpatient rehabilitation for a primary diagnosis of traumatic brain injury in the United States. J Head Trauma Rehabil 30:122–135, 2015 62. Dahl E, Wendt von L, Emanuelson I: A prospective, population-based, follow-up study of mild traumatic brain injury in children. Injury 37:402–409, 2006 63. Daniëlle van Pelt E, de Kloet A, Hilberink SR, Lambregts SAM, Peeters E, Roebroeck ME, et al: The incidence of traumatic brain injury in young people in the catchment area of the University Hospital Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 15:519–526, 2011 64. de Almeida CER, de Sousa Filho JL, Dourado JC, Gontijo PAM, Dellaretti MA, Costa BS: Traumatic Brain Injury Epidemiology in Brazil. World Neurosurg 87:540–547, 2016 65. de Kloet AJ, Hilberink SR, Roebroeck ME, Catsman-Berrevoets CE, Peeters E, Lambregts SAM, et al: Youth with acquired brain injury in The Netherlands: a multi-centre study. Brain Inj 27:843–849, 2013 66. Department for Transport: Hospital admissions as a result of road accidents (RAS55). httpswwwgovukgovernmentstatistical-data-setsras-hospital-episode-statistics-hes:2012 67. Destination healthcare facility of patients with suspected traumatic brain injury in Scotland: analysis of pre-hospital data.: Destination healthcare facility of patients with suspected traumatic brain injury in Scotland: analysis of pre-hospital data. Injury 44:1237–1240, 2013 68. Dewan MC, Mummareddy N, Wellons JC, Bonfield CM: Epidemiology of Global Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Qualitative Review. World Neurosurg 91:497–509.e1, 2016 69. Dias C, Rocha J, Pereira E, Cerejo A: Traumatic brain injury in Portugal: trends in hospital admissions from 2000 to 2010. Acta Med Port 27:349–356, 2014 70. Dikmen S, Machamer J, Temkin N: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Longitudinal Study of Cognition, Functional Status, and Post-Traumatic Symptoms. J Neurotrauma:neu.2016.4618, 2016 71. Durkin MS, Olsen S, Barlow B, Virella A, Connolly ES: The epidemiology of urban pediatric neurological trauma: evaluation of, and implications for, injury prevention programs. Neurosurgery 42:300–310, 1998 72. Eisele JA, Kegler SR, Trent RB, Coronado VG: Nonfatal traumatic brain injury-related hospitalization in very young children-15 states, 1999. J Head Trauma Rehabil 21:537–543, 2006 73. El-Matbouly M, El-Menyar A, Al-Thani H, Tuma M, El-Hennawy H, AbdulRahman H, et al: Traumatic brain injury in Qatar: age matters--insights from a 4-year observational study. ScientificWorldJournal 2013:354920–6, 2013 74. Elm von E, Osterwalder JJ, Graber C, Schoettker P, Stocker R, Zangger P, et al: Severe traumatic brain injury in Switzerland - feasibility and first results of a cohort study. Swiss Med Wkly 138:327–334, 2008 75. Emanuelson I, Wendt von L: Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents in south-western Sweden. Acta Paediatrica 86:730–735, 1997 76. Emejulu JKC: Epidemiological patterns of head injury in a newly established neurosurgical service: one-year prospective study. Afr J Med Med Sci 37:383–388, 2008 77. Emejulu JKC, Shokunbi MT: Aetiological patterns and management outcome of paediatric head trauma: one-year prospective study. Niger J Clin Pract 13:276–279, 2010 78. Engberg A, Teasdale TW: Traumatic brain injury in children in Denmark: a national 15-year study. Eur J Epidemiol 14:165–173, 1998 79. Engberg Aa W, Teasdale TW: Traumatic brain injury in Denmark 1979-1996. A national study of incidence and mortality. Eur J Epidemiol 17:437–442, 2001 80. Engberg AW, Teasdale TW: [Epidemiology and treatment of head injuries in Denmark 1994-2002, illustrated with hospital statistics]. Ugeskr Laeg 169:199–203, 2007 81. Fabbri A, Servadei F, Marchesini G, Negro A, Vandelli A: The changing face of mild head injury: temporal trends and patterns in adolescents and adults from 1997 to 2008. Injury 41:913–917, 2010 82. Fakharian E, Mohammadzadeh M, Behdad S, Babamohammadi A, Mirzadeh AS, Mohammadzadeh J: A seven-year study on head injuries in infants, Iran---the changing pattern. Chin J Traumatol 17:153–156, 2014 83. Falk A-C, Klang B, Paavonen EJ, Wendt von L: Current incidence and management of children with traumatic head injuries: the Stockholm experience. Dev Neurorehabil 10:49–55, 2007 84. Feigin VL, Forouzanfar MH, Krishnamurthi R, Mensah GA, Connor M, Bennett DA, et al: Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 383:245–254, 2014 85. Feigin VL, Theadom A, Barker-Collo S, Starkey NJ, McPherson K, Kahan M, et al: Incidence of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand: a population-based study. Lancet Neurol 12:53–64, 2013 86. Feinberg M, Mai J, Ecklund J: Neurosurgical Management in Traumatic Brain Injury. Semin Neurol 35:050–056, 2015 87. Feitas JPP, Ribeiro LA, Jorge MT: [Pediatric victims of traffic accidents admitted to a university hospital: epidemiological and clinical aspects]. Cad Saude Publica 23:3055–3060, 2007 88. Fekih Hassen A, Zayani MC, Friaa M, Trifa M, Ben Khalifa S: [Epidemiology of pediatric traumatic brain injury at the Children's Hospital of Tunisia, 2007]. Tunis Med 90:25–30, 2012 89. Fernández ML, Mejías L, Ortiz N, García-Fragoso L: Minor head injury in children younger than two years of age: description, prevalence and management in the emergency room of the pediatric university hospital. Bol Asoc Med P R 102:26–28, 2010 90. Ferreros I, Peiro S, Chirivella-Garrido J, Duque P, Gagliardo P, Perez-Vicente R, et al: [Incidence of hospitalization for traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents (Valencia Community, Spain, 2002-2009)]. Rev Neurol 54:719–728, 2012 91. Finnerty F, Glynn L, Dineen B, Colfer F, Macfarlane A: A postal survey of data in general practice on the prevalence of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in patients aged 18-65 in one county in the west of Ireland. BMC Fam Pract 10:36, 2009 92. Firsching R, Woischneck D: Present status of neurosurgical trauma in Germany. World Journal of Surgery 25:1221–1223, 2001 93. Fletcher AE, Khalid S, Mallonee S: The epidemiology of severe traumatic brain injury among persons 65 years of age and older in Oklahoma, 1992-2003. Brain Inj 21:691–699, 2007 94. Frohlich S, Johnson P, Moriarty J: Prevalence, management and outcomes of traumatic brain injury patients admitted to an Irish intensive care unit. Ir J Med Sci 180:423–427, 2011 95. Fu TS, Jing R, Fu WW, Cusimano MD: Epidemiological Trends of Traumatic Brain Injury Identified in the Emergency Department in a Publicly-Insured Population, 2002-2010. PLoS ONE 11:e0145469, 2016 96. Fuller G, Bouamra O, Woodford M, Jenks T, Patel H, Coats TJ, et al: Temporal trends in head injury outcomes from 2003 to 2009 in England and Wales. Br J Neurosurg 25:414–421, 2011 97. Gabella B, Hoffman RE, Marine WW, Stallones L: Urban and rural traumatic brain injuries in Colorado. Ann Epidemiol 7:207–212, 1997 98. Gisladottir EH, Karason S, Sigvaldason K, Ulfarsson E, Mogensen B: [Visits to an emergency department due to head injuries]. Laeknabladid 100:331–335, 2014 99. Gordon KE, Dooley JM, Wood EP: Descriptive epidemiology of concussion. Pediatric Neurology 34:376–378, 2006 100. Guerrero JL, Thurman DJ, Sniezek JE: Emergency department visits associated with traumatic brain injury: United States, 1995-1996. Brain Inj 14:181–186, 2000 101. Guillén-Pinto D, Zea-Vera A, Guillén-Mendoza D, Situ-Kcomt M, Reynoso-Osnayo C, Milla-Vera LM, et al: [Traumatic bran injury in children attending a national hospital in Lima, Peru 2004-2011]. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 30:630–634, 2013 102. Gupta S, Iv V, Sam N, Vuthy D, Klaric K, Shrime MG, et al: Impact of Helmet Use on Severity of Epidural Hematomas in Cambodia. World Neurosurg 0:2016 103. Halldorsson JG, Flekkoy KM, Arnkelsson GB, Tomasson K, Magnadottir HB, Arnarson EO: The scope of early traumatic brain injury as a long-term health concern in two nationwide samples: prevalence and prognostic factors. Brain Inj 26:1–13, 2012 104. Halldorsson JG, Flekkoy KM, Gudmundsson KR, Arnkelsson GB, Arnarson EO: Urban-rural differences in pediatric traumatic head injuries: A prospective nationwide study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 3:935–941, 2007 105. Hamann C, Peek-Asa C, Rus D: Epidemiology of pedestrian-MVCs by road type in Cluj, Romania. Inj Prev 21:84–90, 2015 106. Hamilton M, Mrazik M, Johnson DW: Incidence of delayed intracranial hemorrhage in children after uncomplicated minor head injuries. Pediatrics 126:e33–9, 2010 107. Harrison JE, Berry JG, Jamieson LM: Head and traumatic brain injuries among Australian youth and young adults, July 2000–June 2006. Brain Inj 26:996–1004, 2012 108. Hartholt KA, Van Lieshout EMM, Polinder S, Panneman MJM, Van der Cammen TJM, Patka P: Rapid increase in hospitalizations resulting from fall-related traumatic head injury in older adults in The Netherlands 1986-2008. J Neurotrauma 28:739–744, 2011 109. Harvey LA, Close JCT: Traumatic brain injury in older adults: characteristics, causes and consequences. Injury 43:1821–1826, 2012 110. Hawley CA, Ward AB, Long J, Owen DW, Magnay AR: Prevalence of traumatic brain injury amongst children admitted to hospital in one health district: a population-based study. Injury 34:256–260, 2003 111. Hawley C, Wilson J, Hickson C, Mills S, Ekeocha S, Sakr M: Epidemiology of paediatric minor head injury: Comparison of injury characteristics with Indices of Multiple Deprivation. Injury 44:1855–1861, 2013 112. Heim C, Bosisio F, Roth A, Bloch J, Borens O, Daniel RT, et al: Is trauma in Switzerland any different? epidemiology and patterns of injury in major trauma - a 5-year review from a Swiss trauma centre. Swiss Med Wkly 144:w13958, 2014 113. Heskestad B, Baardsen R, Helseth E, Romner B, Waterloo K, Ingebrigtsen T: Incidence of hospital referred head injuries in Norway: a population based survey from the Stavanger region. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 17:6, 2009 114. Hu J, Ugiliweneza B, Meyer K, Lad SP, Boakye M: Trend and geographic analysis for traumatic brain injury mortality and cost based on MarketScan database. J Neurotrauma 30:1755–1761, 2013 115. Idowu OE, Akinbo O: Neurotrauma burden in a tropical urban conurbation level I trauma centre. Injury 45:1717–1721, 2014 116. Ingebrigtsen T, Mortensen K, Romner B: The epidemiology of hospital-referred head injury in northern Norway. Neuroepidemiology 17:139–146, 1998 117. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation: Global Burden of Disease Study 2015: Incidence, Prevalence, and Years Lived with Disability 1990-2015. Seattle, United States, 2016 118. Isik HS, Bostanci U, Yildiz O, Ozdemir C, Gokyar A: [Retrospective analysis of 954 adult patients with head injury: an epidemiological study]. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 17:46–50, 2011 119. Isik HS, Gokyar A, Yildiz O, Bostanci U, Ozdemir C: [Pediatric head injuries, retrospective analysis of 851 patients: an epidemiological study]. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 17:166–172, 2011 120. Jacobsson LJ, Westerberg M, Lexell J: Demographics, injury characteristics and outcome of traumatic brain injuries in northern Sweden. Acta Neurol Scand 116:300–306, 2007 121. Jager TE, Weiss HB, Coben JH, Pepe PE: Traumatic brain injuries evaluated in U.S. emergency departments, 1992-1994. Acad Emerg Med 7:134–140, 2000 122. Jagnoor J, Keay L, Ganguli A, Dandona R, Thakur JS, Boufous S, et al: Fall related injuries: a retrospective medical review study in North India. Injury 43:1996–2000, 2012 123. Jaja BNR, Eghwrudjakpor PO: Effect of demographic and injury etiologic factors on intensive care unit mortality after severe head injury in a low middle income country. Ann Afr Med 13:204–209, 2014 124. Jamieson LM, Roberts-Thomson KF: Hospitalized head injuries among older people in Australia, 1998/1999 to 2004/2005. Inj Prev 13:243–247, 2007 125. Javouhey E, Guérin A-C, Chiron M: Incidence and risk factors of severe traumatic brain injury resulting from road accidents: a population-based study. Accid Anal Prev 38:225–233, 2006 126. Ji C, Duan L, Wang L, Wu C, Wang Y, Er Y, et al: [Study on head injuries through data from the National Injury Surveillance System of China, 2013]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 36:360–363, 2015 127. Kalanithi P, Schubert RD, Lad SP, Harris OA, Boakye M: Hospital costs, incidence, and inhospital mortality rates of traumatic subdural hematoma in the United States. J Neurosurg 115:1013–1018, 2011 128. Kamal VK, Agrawal D, Pandey RM: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of traumatic brain injury: Evidences from integrated level 1 trauma center in India. J Neurosci Rural Pract 7:515–525, 2016 129. Kaptigau WM, Ke L, Rosenfeld JV: Trends in traumatic brain injury outcomes in Port Moresby General Hospital from January 2003 to December 2004. P N G Med J 50:50–57, 2007 130. Karibe H, Kameyama M, Kawase M, Hirano T, Kawaguchi T, Tominaga T: [Epidemiology of chronic subdural hematomas]. No Shinkei Geka 39:1149–1153, 2011 131. Katsaragakis S, Drimousis PG, Toutouzas K, Stefanatou M, Larentzakis A, Theodoraki ME, et al: Traumatic brain injury in Greece: report of a countrywide registry. Brain Inj 24:871–876, 2010 132. Keenan HT, Runyan DK, Marshall SW, Nocera MA, Merten DF, Sinal SH: A population-based study of inflicted traumatic brain injury in young children. JAMA 290:621–626, 2003 133. Kelly P, John S, Vincent AL, Reed P: Abusive head trauma and accidental head injury: a 20-year comparative study of referrals to a hospital child protection team. Archives of Disease in Childhood 100:1123–1130, 2015 134. Khan A, Prince M, Brayne C, Prina AM: Lifetime Prevalence and Factors Associated with Head Injury among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries: A 10/66 Study. PLoS ONE 10:e0132229, 2015 135. Kim HB, Kim DK, Kwak YH, Shin SD, Song KJ, Lee SC, et al: Epidemiology of Traumatic Head Injury in Korean Children. J Korean Med Sci 27:437–6, 2012 136. King J, Haddock G: Neonatal head injuries revisited. Scott Med J 54:34–36, 2009 137. Koepsell TD, Rivara FP, Vavilala MS, Wang J, Temkin N, Jaffe KM, et al: Incidence and Descriptive Epidemiologic Features of Traumatic Brain Injury in King County, Washington. Pediatrics 128:946–954, 2011 138. Kool B, Chelimo C, Ameratunga S: Head injury incidence and mortality in New Zealand over 10 Years. Neuroepidemiology 41:189–197, 2013 139. Kool B, Raj N, Wainiqolo I, Kafoa B, McCaig E, Ameratunga S: Hospitalised and fatal head injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji: findings from an island-wide trauma registry (TRIP 4). Neuroepidemiology 38:179–185, 2012 140. Koskinen S, Alaranta H: Traumatic brain injury in Finland 1991-2005: a nationwide register study of hospitalized and fatal TBI. Brain Inj 22:205–214, 2008 141. Kramer AH, Zygun DA, Doig CJ, Zuege DJ: Incidence of neurologic death among patients with brain injury: a cohort study in a Canadian health region. CMAJ 185:E838–45, 2013 142. Kraus JF, Fife D, Cox P, Ramstein K, Conroy C: Incidence, severity, and external causes of pediatric brain injury. Am J Dis Child 140:687–693, 1986 143. Krause M, Richards S: Prevalence of traumatic brain injury and access to services in an undergraduate population: a pilot study. Brain Inj 28:1301–1310, 2014 144. Lagbas C, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Shaheen M, Kermah D, Pan D: Traumatic brain injury related hospitalization and mortality in California. Biomed Res Int 2013:143092–9, 2013 145. Lagolago W, Theadom A, Fairbairn-Dunlop P, Ameratunga S, Dowell A, McPherson KM, et al: Traumatic brain injury within Pacific people of New Zealand. N Z Med J 128:29–38, 2015 146. Langlois JA, Kegler SR, Butler JA, Gotsch KE, Johnson RL, Reichard AA, et al: Traumatic brain injury-related hospital discharges. Results from a 14-state surveillance system, 1997. MMWR Surveill Summ 52:1–20, 2003 147. Lasry O, Dudley RW, Fuhrer R, Torrie J, Carlin R, Marcoux J: Traumatic brain injury in a rural indigenous population in Canada: a community-based approach to surveillance. CMAJ Open 4:E249–59, 2016 148. Le Roux AA, Nadvi SS: Acute extradural haematoma in the elderly. Br J Neurosurg 21:16–20, 2007 149. Lee K-S: Estimation of the incidence of head injury in Korea: an approximation based on national traffic accident statistics. J Korean Med Sci 16:342–346, 2001 150. Leibson CL, Brown AW, Ransom JE, Diehl NN, Perkins PK, Mandrekar J, et al: Incidence of traumatic brain injury across the full disease spectrum: a population-based medical record review study. Epidemiology 22:836–844, 2011 151. Li Y, Gu J, Zhou J, Xia X, Wang K, Zheng X, et al: The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in civilian inpatients of Chinese Military Hospitals, 2001-2007. Brain Inj 29:981–988, 2015 152. Lin C-M, Li C-Y: Assessment of medical resource utilization for Taiwanese children hospitalized for intracranial injuries. Injury 45:690–695, 2014 153. Maegele M, Engel D, Bouillon B, Lefering R, Fach H, Raum M, et al: Incidence and outcome of traumatic brain injury in an urban area in Western Europe over 10 years. Eur Surg Res 39:372–379, 2007 154. Maier D, Njoku I, Schmutzhard E, Dharsee J, Doppler M, Härtl R, et al: Traumatic brain injury in a rural and an urban Tanzanian hospital--a comparative, retrospective analysis based on computed tomography. World Neurosurg 81:478–482, 2014 155. Majdan M, Mauritz W, Brazinova A, Rusnak M, Leitgeb J, Janciak I, et al: Severity and outcome of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) with different causes of injury. Brain Inj 25:797–805, 2011 156. Majdan M, Mauritz W, Rusnak M, Brazinova A, Rehorcikova V, Leitgeb J: Long-Term Trends and Patterns of Fatal Traumatic Brain Injuries in the Pediatric and Adolescent Population of Austria in 1980–2012: Analysis of 33 Years. J Neurotrauma 31:1046–1055, 2014 157. Majdan M, Rusnak M, Brazinova A, Mauritz W: Severity, Causes and Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injuries Occurring at Different Locations: Implications for Prevention and Public Health. Cent Eur J Public Health 23:118–124, 2015 158. Marchio PS, Previgliano IJ, Goldini CE, Murillo-Cabezas F: [Head injury in Buenos Aires city: a prospective, population based, epidemiologic study]. Neurocirugia (Astur) 17:14–22, 2006 159. Marlow R, Mytton J, Maconochie IK, Taylor H, Lyttle MD: Trends in admission and death rates due to paediatric head injury in England, 2000-2011. Archives of Disease in Childhood 100:1136–1140, 2015 160. Martins ET, Linhares MN, Sousa DS, Schroeder HK, Meinerz J, Rigo LA, et al: Mortality in severe traumatic brain injury: a multivariated analysis of 748 Brazilian patients from Florianópolis City. J Trauma 67:85–90, 2009 161. Masson F, Thicoipe M, Aye P, Mokni T, Senjean P, Schmitt V, et al: Epidemiology of severe brain injuries: a prospective population-based study. J Trauma 51:481–489, 2001 162. Mauritz W, Brazinova A, Majdan M, Leitgeb J: Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Austria. Wien Klin Wochenschr 126:42–52, 2014 163. Mauritz W, Brazinova A, Majdan M, Leitgeb J: Hospital admissions for traumatic brain injury of Austrian residents vs. of visitors to Austria. Brain Inj 28:1295–1300, 2014 164. Mauritz W, Brazinova A, Majdan M, Rehorcikova V, Leitgeb J: Deaths due to traumatic brain injury in Austria between 1980 and 2012. Brain Inj 28:1096–1101, 2014 165. McKinlay A, Grace RC, Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, Ridder EM, MacFarlane MR: Prevalence of traumatic brain injury among children, adolescents and young adults: Prospective evidence from a birth cohort. Brain Inj 22:175–181, 2008 166. Meehan WP, Mannix R: Pediatric concussions in United States emergency departments in the years 2002 to 2006. J Pediatr 157:889–893, 2010 167. Melo JRT, de Santana DLP, Pereira JLB, Ribeiro TF: [Traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents at Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 64:994–996, 2006 168. Meng X, Shi B: Traumatic Brain Injury Patients With a Glasgow Coma Scale Score of =8, Cerebral Edema, and/or a Basal Skull Fracture are More Susceptible to Developing Hyponatremia. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 28:21–26, 2016 169. Miekisiak G, Czyz M, Tykocki T, Kaczmarczyk J, Zaluski R, Latka D: Traumatic brain injury in Poland from 2009-2012: A national study on incidence. Brain Inj 30:79–82, 2016 170. Mishra B, Sinha Mishra ND, Sukhla S, Sinha A: Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases from Western Nepal. Indian J Community Med 35:115–121, 2010 171. Mitra B, Cameron PA, Butt W, Rosenfeld JV: CHILDREN OR YOUNG ADULTS? A POPULATION-BASED STUDY ON ADOLESCENT HEAD INJURY. ANZ J Surg 76:343–350, 2006 172. Mitra B, Cameron P, Butt W: Population-based study of paediatric head injury. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 43:154–159, 2007 173. Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al: Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Systematic Reviews 4:1–9, 2015 174. Moore L, Evans D, Hameed SM, Yanchar NL, Stelfox HT, Simons R, et al: Mortality in Canadian Trauma Systems: A Multicenter Cohort Study. Ann Surg:1, 2016 175. Moorin R, Miller TR, Hendrie D: Population-based incidence and 5-year survival for hospital-admitted traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, Western Australia, 2003-2008. J Neurol 261:1726–1734, 2014 176. Morisse E, Favarel-Garrigues J-F, Couadau E, Mikulski M, Xavier L, Ryckwaert Y, et al: Incidence of hospital-admitted severe traumatic brain injury and in-hospital fatality rates in a Pacific Island country: A 5-year retrospective study. Brain Inj 28:1436–1440, 2014 177. Mosenthal AC, Lavery RF, Addis M, Kaul S, Ross S, Marburger R, et al: Isolated traumatic brain injury: age is an independent predictor of mortality and early outcome. J Trauma 52:907–911, 2002 178. Murray GD, Teasdale GM, Braakman R, Cohadon F, Dearden M, Iannotti F, et al: The European Brain Injury Consortium survey of head injuries. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 141:223–236, 1999 179. Muyembe VM, Suleman N: Head injuries at a Provincial General Hospital in Kenya. East Afr Med J 76:200–205, 1999 180. Myburgh JA, Cooper DJ, Finfer SR, Venkatesh B, Jones D, Higgins A, et al: Epidemiology and 12-Month Outcomes From Traumatic Brain Injury in Australia and New Zealand. J Trauma 64:854–862, 2008 181. Myhre MC, Grøgaard JB, Dyb GA, Sandvik L, Nordhov M: Traumatic head injury in infants and toddlers. Acta Paediatrica 96:1159–1163, 2007 182. Nakamura N, Yamaura A, Shigemori M, Ogawa T, Tokutomi T, Ono J-I, et al: Final report of the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank project 1998-2001: 1,002 cases of traumatic brain injury. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 46:567–574, 2006 183. Nigrovic LE, Lee LK, Hoyle J, Stanley RM, Gorelick MH, Miskin M, et al: Prevalence of clinically important traumatic brain injuries in children with minor blunt head trauma and isolated severe injury mechanisms. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166:356–361, 2012 184. Numminen HJ: The incidence of traumatic brain injury in an adult population--how to classify mild cases? Eur J Neurol 18:460–464, 2011 185. Odebode TO: Age related pattern and outcome of head injury in indigenous Africa. Niger J Clin Pract 11:265–269, 2008 186. Okyere-Dede EK, Nkalakata MC, Nkomo T, Hadley GP, Madiba TE: Paediatric head injuries in the Kwazulu-Natal Province of South Africa: a developing country perspective. Trop Doct 43:1–4, 2013 187. Oluwole OSA: Incidence and risk factors of early post-traumatic seizures in Nigerians. Brain Inj 25:980–988, 2011 188. Ovalle F, Xu L, Pearson WS, Spelke B, Sugerman DE: Outcomes of pediatric severe traumatic brain injury patients treated in adult trauma centers with and without added qualifications in pediatrics - United States, 2009. Inj Epidemiol 1:15, 2014 189. Pedersen K, Fahlstedt M, Jacobsson A, Kleiven S, Holst von H: A National Survey of Traumatic Brain Injuries Admitted to Hospitals in Sweden from 1987 to 2010. Neuroepidemiology 45:20–27, 2015 190. Peeters W, van den Brande R, Polinder S, Brazinova A, Steyerberg EW, Lingsma HF, et al: Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 157:1683–1696, 2015 191. Peloso PM, Holst von H, Borg J: Mild traumatic brain injuries presenting to Swedish hospitals in 1987-2000. J Rehabil Med:22–27, 2004 192. Pérez K, Novoa AM, Santamariña-Rubio E, Narvaez Y, Arrufat V, Borrell C, et al: Incidence trends of traumatic spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury in Spain, 2000-2009. Accid Anal Prev 46:37–44, 2012 193. Phillips LA, Voaklander DC, Drul C, Kelly KD: The epidemiology of hospitalized head injury in British Columbia, Canada. Can J Neurol Sci 36:605–611, 2009 194. Piatt JH, Neff DA: Hospital care of childhood traumatic brain injury in the United States, 1997-2009: a neurosurgical perspective. J Neurosurg Pediatr 10:257–267, 2012 195. Ponsford J, Willmott C, Rothwell A, Cameron P, Kelly AM, Nelms R, et al: Factors influencing outcome following mild traumatic brain injury in adults. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 6:568–579, 2000 196. Pruthi N, Ashok M, Kumar VS, Jhavar K, Sampath S, Devi BI: Magnitude of pedestrian head injuries & fatalities in Bangalore, south India: a retrospective study from an apex neurotrauma center. Indian J Med Res 136:1039–1043, 2012 197. Quayle KS, Powell EC, Mahajan P, Hoyle JD, Nadel FM, Badawy MK, et al: Epidemiology of blunt head trauma in children in U.S. emergency departments. N Engl J Med 371:1945–1947, 2014 198. Qureshi JS, Ohm R, Rajala H, Mabedi C, Sadr-Azodi O, Andrén-Sandberg Å, et al: Head injury triage in a sub Saharan African urban population. Int J Surg 11:265–269, 2013 199. Ramanathan DM, McWilliams N, Schatz P, Hillary FG: Epidemiological shifts in elderly traumatic brain injury: 18-year trends in Pennsylvania. J Neurotrauma 29:1371–1378, 2012 200. Reid SR, Roesler JS, Gaichas AM, Tsai AK: The epidemiology of pediatric traumatic brain injury in Minnesota. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155:784–789, 2001 201. Rickels E, Wild von K, Wenzlaff P: Head injury in Germany: A population-based prospective study on epidemiology, causes, treatment and outcome of all degrees of head-injury severity in two distinct areas. Brain Inj 24:1491–1504, 2010 202. Robertson BD, McConnel CE, Green S: Charges associated with pediatric head injuries: A five-year retrospective review of 41 pediatric hospitals in the US. J Inj Violence Res 5:50–60, 2013 203. Rochette LM, Conner KA, Smith GA: The contribution of traumatic brain injury to the medical and economic outcomes of motor vehicle-related injuries in Ohio. J Safety Res 40:353–358, 2009 204. Rodríguez M: Predicting mortality from head injury: experience of Sancti Spíritus Province, Cuba. MEDICC Rev 15:30–33, 2013 205. Rosso A, Brazinova A, Janciak I, Wilbacher I, Rusnak M, Mauritz W, et al: Severe traumatic brain injury in Austria II: epidemiology of hospital admissions. Wien Klin Wochenschr 119:29–34, 2007 206. Rubiano AM, Carney N, Chesnut R, Puyana JC: Global neurotrauma research challenges and opportunities. Nature 527:S193–7, 2015 207. Rus D, Chereches RM, Peek-Asa C, Marton-Vasarhely EO, Oprescu F, Brinzaniuc A, et al: Paediatric head injuries treated in a children's emergency department from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 23:206–213, 2016 208. Rusnak M: Traumatic brain injury: Giving voice to a silent epidemic. Nat Rev Neurol 9:186–187, 2013 209. Rutland-Brown W, Langlois JA, Thomas KE, Xi YL: Incidence of traumatic brain injury in the United States, 2003. J Head Trauma Rehabil 21:544–548, 2006 210. Ryu MS, Lee K-S: Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood. J Korean Child Neurol Soc 14:87–93, 2006 211. Ryu WHA, Feinstein A, Colantonio A, Streiner DL, Dawson DR: Early identification and incidence of mild TBI in Ontario. Can J Neurol Sci 36:429–435, 2009 212. Saadat S, Akbari H, Khorramirouz R, Mofid R, Rahimi-Movaghar V: Determinants of mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury. Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 18:219–224, 2012 213. Sánchez AI, Krafty RT, Weiss HB, Rubiano AM, Peitzman AB, Puyana JC: Trends in survival and early functional outcomes from hospitalized severe adult traumatic brain injuries, pennsylvania, 1998 to 2007. J Head Trauma Rehabil 27:159–169, 2012 214. Schneier AJ, Shields BJ, Hostetler SG, Xiang H, Smith GA: Incidence of pediatric traumatic brain injury and associated hospital resource utilization in the United States. Pediatrics 118:483–492, 2006 215. Scholten AC, Haagsma JA, Panneman MJM, van Beeck EF, Polinder S: Traumatic brain injury in the Netherlands: incidence, costs and disability-adjusted life years. PLoS ONE 9:e110905, 2014 216. Seid M, Azazh A, Enquselassie F, Yisma E: Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a prospective hospital based study. BMC Emerg Med 15:10, 2015 217. Selassie AW, Cao Y, Church EC, Saunders LL, Krause J: Accelerated death rate in population-based cohort of persons with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 29:E8–E19, 2014 218. Selassie AW, Wilson DA, Pickelsimer EE, Voronca DC, Williams NR, Edwards JC: Incidence of sport-related traumatic brain injury and risk factors of severity: a population-based epidemiologic study. Ann Epidemiol 23:750–756, 2013 219. Servadei F, Verlicchi A, Soldano F, Zanotti B, Piffer S: Descriptive epidemiology of head injury in Romagna and Trentino. Comparison between two geographically different Italian regions. Neuroepidemiology 21:297–304, 2002 220. Sethi M, Heidenberg J, Wall SP, Ayoung-Chee P, Slaughter D, Levine DA, et al: Bicycle helmets are highly protective against traumatic brain injury within a dense urban setting. Injury 46:2483–2490, 2015 221. Shao J, Zhu H, Yao H, Stallones L, Yeates K, Wheeler K, et al: Characteristics and Trends of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injuries Treated at a Large Pediatric Medical Center in China, 2002–2011. PLoS ONE 7:e51634–7, 2012 222. Shekhar C, Gupta LN, Premsagar IC, Sinha M, Kishore J: An epidemiological study of traumatic brain injury cases in a trauma centre of New Delhi (India). J Emerg Trauma Shock 8:131–139, 2015 223. Shi H-Y, Hwang S-L, Lee I-C, Chen I-T, Lee K-T, Lin C-L: Trends and outcome predictors after traumatic brain injury surgery: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. J Neurosurg 121:1323–1330, 2014 224. Shi J, Xiang H, Wheeler K, Smith GA, Stallones L, Groner J, et al: Costs, mortality likelihood and outcomes of hospitalized US children with traumatic brain injuries. Brain Inj 23:602–611, 2009 225. Shimoda K, Maeda T, Tado M, Yoshino A, Katayama Y, Bullock MR: Outcome and surgical management for geriatric traumatic brain injury: analysis of 888 cases registered in the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. World Neurosurg 82:1300–1306, 2014 226. Shivaji T, Lee A, Dougall N, McMillan T, Stark C: The epidemiology of hospital treated traumatic brain injury in Scotland. BMC Neurol 14:2, 2014 227. Shukri AA, Bersnev VP, Riabukha NP: [The epidemiology of brain injury and the organization of health care to victims in Aden (Yemen)]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko:40–2– discussion 42, 2006 228. Siman-Tov M, Radomislensky I, Knoller N, Bahouth H, Kessel B, Klein Y, et al: Incidence and injury characteristics of traumatic brain injury: Comparison between children, adults and seniors in Israel. Brain Inj 30:83–89, 2016 229. Slesak G, Inthalath S, Wilder-Smith A, Barennes H: Road traffic injuries in northern Laos: trends and risk factors of an underreported public health problem. Trop Med Int Health 20:1578–1587, 2015 230. Solagberu BA, Osuoji RI, Ibrahim NA, Oludara MA, Balogun RA, Ajani AO, et al: Child pedestrian injury and fatality in a developing country. Pediatr Surg Int 30:625–632, 2014 231. Song SY, Lee SK, Eom KS, KNTDB Investigators: Analysis of Mortality and Epidemiology in 2617 Cases of Traumatic Brain Injury : Korean Neuro-Trauma Data Bank System 2010-2014. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 59:485–491, 2016 232. Sosin DM, Sniezek JE, Thurman DJ: Incidence of mild and moderate brain injury in the United States, 1991. Brain Inj 10:47–54, 1996 233. Staton CA, Msilanga D, Kiwango G, Vissoci JR, de Andrade L, Lester R, et al: A prospective registry evaluating the epidemiology and clinical care of traumatic brain injury patients presenting to a regional referral hospital in Moshi, Tanzania: challenges and the way forward. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot:1–9, 2015 234. Steudel WI, Cortbus F, Schwerdtfeger K: Epidemiology and prevention of fatal head injuries in Germany--trends and the impact of the reunification. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 147:231–42– discussion 242, 2005 235. Stocchetti N, Paternò R, Citerio G, Beretta L, Colombo A: Traumatic brain injury in an aging population. J Neurotrauma 29:1119–1125, 2012 236. Styrke J, Stålnacke B-M, Sojka P, Björnstig U: Traumatic brain injuries in a well-defined population: epidemiological aspects and severity. J Neurotrauma 24:1425–1436, 2007 237. Sudlow CLM, Warlow CP: Comparing Stroke Incidence Worldwide : What Makes Studies Comparable? Stroke 27:550–558, 1996 238. Suominen JS, Pakarinen MP, Kääriäinen S, Impinen A, Vartiainen E, Helenius I: In-hospital treated pediatric injuries are increasing in Finland--a population based study between 1997 and 2006. Scand J Surg 100:129–135, 2011 239. Szarpak L, Madziala M: Epidemiology of cranio-cerebral injuries in emergency medical services practice. Pol Przegl Chir 83:646–651, 2011 240. Tabish A, Lone NA, Afzal WM, Salam A: The incidence and severity of injury in children hospitalised for traumatic brain injury in Kashmir. Injury 37:410–415, 2006 241. Tait RJ, Anstey KJ, Butterworth P: Incidence of self-reported brain injury and the relationship with substance abuse: findings from a longitudinal community survey. BMC Public Health 10:171, 2010 242. Tasker RC, Fleming TJ, Young AE, Morris KP, Parslow RC: Severe head injury in children: intensive care unit activity and mortality in England and Wales. Br J Neurosurg 25:68–77, 2011 243. Tay EL, Lee SWH, Jamaluddin SF, Tam CL, Wong CP: The epidemiology of childhood brain injury in the state of Selangor and Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. BMC Pediatr 16:56, 2016 244. Toit-Prinsloo du L, Saayman G: Fatal head injuries in children under the age of 5 years in Pretoria. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 35:212–217, 2014 245. Tran TM, Fuller AT, Kiryabwire J, Mukasa J, Muhumuza M, Ssenyojo H, et al: Distribution and characteristics of severe traumatic brain injury at Mulago National Referral Hospital in Uganda. World Neurosurg 83:269–277, 2015 246. Tsai W-C, Chiu W-T, Chiou H-Y, Choy C-S, Hung C-C, Tsai S-H: Pediatric traumatic brain injuries in Taiwan: an 8-year study. J Clin Neurosci 11:126–129, 2004 247. Twagirayezu E, Teteli R, Bonane A, Rugwizangoga E: Road traffic injuries at Kigali University Central Teaching Hospital, Rwanda. East and Central African Journal of Surgery 13:2008 248. Uche EO, Emejulu JK, Ekenze SO, Okorie E, Uche NJ: Neonatal head injury unrelated to birth trauma in South-East Nigeria. Niger J Med 22:274–278, 2013 249. Udoh D, Adeyemo A: Traumatic brain injuries in children: A hospital-based study in Nigeria. Afr J Paediatr Surg 10:154–6, 2013 250. UK Paediatric Brain Injury Study Group and the Paediatric Intensive Care Society Study Group, Tasker RC, Morris KP, Forsyth RJ, Hawley CA, Parslow RC: Severe head injury in children: emergency access to neurosurgery in the United Kingdom. Emerg Med J 23:519–522, 2006 251. Umerani MS, Abbas A, Sharif S: Traumatic brain injuries: experience from a tertiary care centre in Pakistan. Turk Neurosurg 24:19–24, 2014 252. Umerani MS, Abbas A, Sharif S: Traumatic brain injuries: experience from a tertiary care centre in Pakistan. Turk Neurosurg 24:19–24, 2014 253. Vaishnavi S, Rao V, Fann JR: Neuropsychiatric problems after traumatic brain injury: unraveling the silent epidemic. Psychosomatics 50:198–205, 2009 254. Ventsel G, Kolk A, Talvik I, Väli M, Vaikmaa M, Talvik T: The incidence of childhood traumatic brain injury in Tartu and Tartu County in Estonia. Neuroepidemiology 30:20–24, 2008 255. Violent head trauma in China: report of 2254 cases.: Violent head trauma in China: report of 2254 cases. Surg Neurol 68 Suppl 2:S2–5– discussion S5, 2007 256. Wagner AK, Sasser HC, Hammond FM, Wiercisiewski D, Alexander J: Intentional traumatic brain injury: epidemiology, risk factors, and associations with injury severity and mortality. J Trauma 49:404–410, 2000 257. Walder B, Haller G, Rebetez MML, Delhumeau C, Bottequin E, Schoettker P, et al: Severe traumatic brain injury in a high-income country: an epidemiological study. J Neurotrauma 30:1934–1942, 2013 258. Winqvist S, Lehtilahti M, Jokelainen J, Luukinen H, Hillbom M: Traumatic brain injuries in children and young adults: a birth cohort study from northern Finland. Neuroepidemiology 29:136–142, 2007 259. Wong JC, Linn KA, Shinohara RT, Mateen FJ: Traumatic brain injury in Africa in 2050: a modeling study. Eur J Neurol 23:382–386, 2015 260. World Health Organization: Health Statistics and Information Systems. 2016 261. Yates PJ, Williams WH, Harris A, Round A, Jenkins R: An epidemiological study of head injuries in a UK population attending an emergency department. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 77:699–701, 2006 262. Younis R, Younis M, Hamidi S, Musmar M, Mawson AR: Causes of traumatic brain injury in patients admitted to Rafidia, Al-Ittihad and the specialized Arab hospitals, Palestine, 2006?2007. Brain Inj 25:282–291, 2011 263. Yousefzadeh Chabok S, Ramezani S, Kouchakinejad L, Saneei Z: Epidemiology of pediatric head trauma in guilan. Arch Trauma Res 1:19–22, 2012 264. Zhang AL, Sing DC, Rugg CM, Feeley BT, Senter C: The Rise of Concussions in the Adolescent Population. Orthop J Sports Med 4:2325967116662458, 2016 265. Zhao YD, Wang W: Neurosurgical trauma in People's Republic of China. World Journal of Surgery 25:1202–1204, 2001 266. Zhu H, Gao Q, Xia X, Xiang J, Yao H, Shao J: Clinically-Important Brain Injury and CT Findings in Pediatric Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Prospective Study in a Chinese Reference Hospital. IJERPH 11:3493–3506, 2014 267. Zubovic A, Shamdasani S, Fogarty EE, Moore D, Dowling F: Minor head injuries in children. Ir Med J 99:121–123, 2006 268. Zuckerman SL, Yengo-Kahn AM, Buckley TA, Solomon GS, Sills AK, Kerr ZY: Predictors of postconcussion syndrome in collegiate student-athletes. Neurosurg Focus 40:E13, 2016

We use cookies to improve the performance of our site, to analyze the traffic to our site, and to personalize your experience of the site. You can control cookies through your browser settings. Please find more information on the cookies used on our site. Privacy Policy