References: 1. Abraham DJ , Herkowitz HN. Indications and trends in use in cervical spinal fusions. Orthop
Clin North Am 1998;29:731-44.
2. Oglesby M, Fineberg SJ, Patel AA, et al. Epidemiological trends in cervical spine surgery for
degenerative diseases between 2002 and 2009. Spine 2013;38:1226-32.
3. Dutta S, Dunnington G, Blanchard MC, et al. ‘‘And doctor, no residents please!’’ J Am Coll
4. Cowles RA, Moyer CA, Sonnad SS, et al. Doctor-patient communication in surgery: attitudes
and expectations of general surgery patients about the involvement and education of surgical
residents. J Am Coll Surg 2001;193:73-80.
5. Lim S, Parsa AT, Kim BD, et al. Impact of resident involvement in neurosurgery: an analysis
of 8748 patients from the 2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality
Improvement Program database. J Neurosurg 2015;122:962-70.
6. Haughom BD, Schairer WW, Hellman MD, et al. Does resident involvement impact postoperative
complications following primary total knee arthroplasty? An analysis of 24,529 cases.
J Arthroplasty 2014;29:1468-72.
7. Matulewicz RS, Pilecki M, Rambachan A, et al. Impact of resident involvement on urological
surgery outcomes: an analysis of 40,000 patients from the ACS-NSQIP database. J Urol
8. Edelstein AI, Lovecchio FC, Saha S, et al. Impact of resident involvement on orthopaedic
surgery outcomes: an analysis of 30,628 patients from the American College of Surgeons
National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014;96: e131.
[Epub ahead of print]
9. Iannuzzi JC, Chandra A, Rickles AS, et al. Resident involvement is associated with worse
outcomes after major lower extremity amputation. J Vasc Surg 2013; 58:827-31.
10. Schoenfeld AJ, Serrano JA, Waterman BR, et al. The impact of resident involvement on
post-operative morbidity and mortality following orthopaedic procedures: a study of 43,343
cases. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2013;133:1483-91.
11. Raval MV, Wang X, Cohen ME, et al. The influence of resident involvement on surgical
outcomes. J Am Coll Surg 2011;212: 889-98.
12. Krell RW, Birkmeyer N, Reames BN, et al. Effects of resident involvement on complication
rates after laparoscopic gastric bypass. J Am Coll Surg 2014;218:253-260.
References (cited in order of appearance)
13. Ray WZ, Ganju A, Harrop JS, et al. Developing an anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion
simulator for neurosurgical resident training. Neurosurg 2013;73:S100-S106.
14. Khuri SF, Daley J, Henderson W, et al. Risk adjustment of the postoperative mortality rate
for the comparative assessment of the quality of surgical care: results of the National Veterans
Affairs Surgical Risk Study. J Am Coll Surg 1997;185:315-27.
15. Khuri SF, Henderson WG, Daley J, et al. Successful implementation of the department of
Veteran Affair’s National Surgical Quality Improvement Program in the private sector: The
patient safety in surgery study. Ann Surg 2008;248:329-36.
16. Birkmeyer JK, Shahian DM, Dimick JB, et al. Blueprint for a new American College of
Surgeons: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. J Am Coll Surg 2008;5:777-82.
17. Shiloach M, Frencher SK Jr, Steeger JE, et al. Toward robust information: data quality and
inter-rater reliability in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality
Improvement Program. J Am Coll Surg 2010;210:6–16.
18. Rosenbaum PR, Rubin DB. Constructing a control group using multivariate matched
sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score. Am Stat 1985;39:33-8.
19. Thoemmes F, Kim ES. A systematic review of propensity score methods in the social
sciences. Multivariate Behav Res 2011;46:90-118.
20. Stukel TA, Fisher ES, Wennberg DE, et al. Analysis of observational studies in the presence
of treatment selection bias: effects of invasive cardiac management on AMI survival using
propensity score and instrumental variable methods. JAMA 2007;297:278-85.
21. Austin PC. Optimal caliper widths for propensity-score matching when estimating
differences in means and differences in proportions in observational studies. Pharmaceut Statist
22. Alosh H, Riley LH, 3rd Skolasky RL. Insurance status, geography, race, and ethnicity as
predictors of anterior cervical spine surgery rates and in-hospital mortality: an examination of
United States trends from 1992 to 2005. Spine 2009;34:1956-62.
23. Angevine PD, Arons RR , McCormick PC . National and regional rates and variation of
cervical discectomy with and without anterior fusion, 1990–1999. Spine 2003;28:931-9.
24. Martin CT, Pugely AJ, Gao Y, et al. Thirty-day morbidity after single-level anterior cervical
discectomy and fusion: Identification of risk factors and emphasis on the safety of outpatient
procedures. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2014;96:1288-94.
25. Buerba RA, Giles E, Webb ML, et al. Increased risk of complications after anterior cervical
discectomy and fusion in the elderly: an analysis of 6253 patients in the American College of
Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Spine 2014;39:2062-9.
26. Stienen MN, Joswig H, Jucker D, et al. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: is surgical
education safe? Acta Neurochir 2015 Mar 28. [Epub ahead of print].
27. Advani V, Ahad S, Gonczy C, et al. Does resident involvement effect surgical times and
complication rates during laparoscopic appendectomy for uncomplicated appendicitis? An
analysis of 16,849 cases from the ACS-NSQIP. Am J Surg 2012;203:347-51.
28. Gorgun E, Benlice C, Corrao E, et al. Outcomes associated with resident involvement in
laparoscopic colorectal surgery suggest a need for earlier and more intensive resident training.
29. Zaw HM, Osborne IC, Pettit PN, et al. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in
orthopedic surgery. IMAJ 2002;4:1040-2.
30. Kim JY, Khavanin N, Rambachan A, et al. Surgical duration and risk of venous
thromboembolism. JAMA Surg 2015;150:110-7.
31. Catre MG. Anticoagulation in spinal surgery. A critical review of the literature. Can J Surg
32. Glotzbecker MP, Bono CM, Wood KB, et al. Thromboembolic disease in spinal surgery: a
systematic review. Spine 2009;34:291-303.
33. Ferree BA, Stern PJ, Jolson RS, et al. Deep venous thrombosis after spinal surgery. Spine
34. Ferree BA, Wright AM. Deep venous thrombosis following posterior lumbar spinal surgery.
35. Oda T, Fuji T, Kato Y, et al. Deep venous thrombosis after posterior spinal surgery. Spine