Results: Eighty patients were included. All were male, mean age of 25, and mean Glasgow Coma Score at admission of 8.5. The predominant injury mechanism was blast (72.5%), the remainder suffered gunshots to the head. The most frequent lesions were intraparenchymal hemorrhage (80%), retained fragments (45%) subarachnoid hemorrhage (40%), subdural hematoma (30%), and transtentorial or tonsillar herniation (18.8%). Epidural hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, and major cerebrovascular injury (ICA, proximal ACA/MCA/PCA, vein of Galen, or a dural venous sinus) were less common, occurring in less than 10%.
The mean GOS at two years was 3.96. Herniation or a cerebrovascular injury correlated with lower two year GOS (1.47, 3.14), as did lower GCS at admission. Comorbid herniation and cerebrovascular injury was 100% mortal. Subdural and epidural hematoma was correlated with higher two year GOS (4.26, 3.8). Thirteen patients expired during resuscitation or had grossly unsalvageable neurological injuries; excluding these, GOS at two years was 4.54.
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