References: 1. Mizuno J, Nakagawa H. Outcome analysis of anterior decompressive surgery and fusion for cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: report of 107 cases and review of the literature. Neurosurgical focus. 2001;10(4):E6.
2. Tsuyama N. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Clinical orthopaedics and related research. Apr 1984(184):71-84.
3. Kawaguchi Y, Kanamori M, Ishihara H, et al. Progression of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament following en bloc cervical laminoplasty. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. Dec 2001;83-a(12):1798-1802.
4. Falla D, Jull G, Rainoldi A, Merletti R. Neck flexor muscle fatigue is side specific in patients with unilateral neck pain. European journal of pain (London, England). Feb 2004;8(1):71-77.
5. Falla DL, Jull GA, Hodges PW. Patients with neck pain demonstrate reduced electromyographic activity of the deep cervical flexor muscles during performance of the craniocervical flexion test. Spine. Oct 1 2004;29(19):2108-2114.
6. Falla D, Rainoldi A, Merletti R, Jull G. Myoelectric manifestations of sternocleidomastoid and anterior scalene muscle fatigue in chronic neck pain patients. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Mar 2003;114(3):488-495.
7. Falla D, Jull G, Edwards S, Koh K, Rainoldi A. Neuromuscular efficiency of the sternocleidomastoid and anterior scalene muscles in patients with chronic neck pain. Disability and rehabilitation. Jun 17 2004;26(12):712-717.
8. Jesus-Moraleida FR, Ferreira PH, Pereira LS, Vasconcelos CM, Ferreira ML. Ultrasonographic analysis of the neck flexor muscles in patients with chronic neck pain and changes after cervical spine mobilization. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics. Oct 2011;34(8):514-524.
9. Javanshir K, Rezasoltani A, Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Amiri M, Ortega-Santiago R, Fernandez-de-Las-Penas C. Ultrasound assessment of bilateral longus colli muscles in subjects with chronic bilateral neck pain. American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists. Apr 2011;90(4):293-301.
10. Javanshir K, Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Rezasoltani A, Amiri M, Rahgozar M. Ultrasonography of longus colli muscle: A reliability study on healthy subjects and patients with chronic neck pain. Journal of bodywork and movement therapies. Jan 2011;15(1):50-56.
11. Wallwork TL, Stanton WR, Freke M, Hides JA. The effect of chronic low back pain on size and contraction of the lumbar multifidus muscle. Manual therapy. Oct 2009;14(5):496-500.
12. Cagnie B, D'Hooge R, Achten E, Cambier D, Danneels L. A magnetic resonance imaging investigation into the function of the deep cervical flexors during the performance of craniocervical flexion. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics. May 2010;33(4):286-291.
13. Paalanne N, Niinimaki J, Karppinen J, et al. Assessment of association between low back pain and paraspinal muscle atrophy using opposed-phase magnetic resonance imaging: a population-based study among young adults. Spine. Nov 1 2011;36(23):1961-1968.
14. Fortin M, Macedo LG. Multifidus and paraspinal muscle group cross-sectional areas of patients with low back pain and control patients: a systematic review with a focus on blinding. Physical therapy. Jul 2013;93(7):873-888.
15. Elliott J, Jull G, Noteboom JT, Galloway G. MRI study of the cross-sectional area for the cervical extensor musculature in patients with persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Manual therapy. Jun 2008;13(3):258-265.
16. Belavy DL, Armbrecht G, Richardson CA, Felsenberg D, Hides JA. Muscle atrophy and changes in spinal morphology: is the lumbar spine vulnerable after prolonged bed-rest? Spine. Jan 15 2011;36(2):137-145.
17. Petersilge CA, Pathria MN, Gentili A, Recht MP, Resnick D. Denervation hypertrophy of muscle: MR features. Journal of computer assisted tomography. Jul-Aug 1995;19(4):596-600.
18. Lovitt S, Moore SL, Marden FA. The use of MRI in the evaluation of myopathy. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Mar 2006;117(3):486-495.
19. Hides JA, Stokes MJ, Saide M, Jull GA, Cooper DH. Evidence of lumbar multifidus muscle wasting ipsilateral to symptoms in patients with acute/subacute low back pain. Spine. Jan 15 1994;19(2):165-172.
20. Fleckenstein JL, Watumull D, Conner KE, et al. Denervated human skeletal muscle: MR imaging evaluation. Radiology. Apr 1993;187(1):213-218.
21. Hyun SJ, Rhim SC, Roh SW, Kang SH, Riew KD. The time course of range of motion loss after cervical laminoplasty: a prospective study with minimum two-year follow-up. Spine. May 15 2009;34(11):1134-1139.
22. Tsukimoto H. An autopsy report of syndrome of compression of spinal cord owing to ossification within spinal canal of the cervical spine. Arch Jap Chir. 1960;29:1003-1007.
23. Mizuno J, Nakagawa H, Isob eM. [surgical results of anterior approach in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine]. Spine Surg. 1997;11:39-46.
24. Terayama K, Maruyama S, Miyashita R, Minai K, Kinoshita M, Shimizu Y. [Ossification of the postrior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine]. Orthop Surg. 1964;15:1083-1095.
25. Abe H, Tsuru M, Ito T, Iwasaki Y, Koiwa M. Anterior decompression for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. Journal of neurosurgery. Jul 1981;55(1):108-116.
26. Kim TJ, Bae KW, Uhm WS, Kim TH, Joo KB, Jun JB. Prevalence of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine. Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme. Jul 2008;75(4):471-474.
27. Izawa K. [Comparative roentgenographical study on the incidence of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and other degenerative changes of the cervical spine among Japanese, Koreans, Americans and Germans (author's transl)]. Nihon Seikeigeka Gakkai zasshi. May 1980;54(5):461-474.
28. Epstein N. Diagnosis and surgical management of cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society. Nov-Dec 2002;2(6):436-449.
29. McAfee PC, Regan JJ, Bohlman HH. Cervical cord compression from ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in non-orientals. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume. Aug 1987;69(4):569-575.
30. Cote P, Cassidy JD, Yong-Hing K, Sibley J, Loewy J. Apophysial joint degeneration, disc degeneration, and sagittal curve of the cervical spine. Can they be measured reliably on radiographs? Spine. Apr 15 1997;22(8):859-864.
31. Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Cailliet R, Troyanovich SJ, Janik TJ, Holland B. Cobb method or Harrison posterior tangent method: which to choose for lateral cervical radiographic analysis. Spine. Aug 15 2000;25(16):2072-2078.
32. Polly DW, Jr., Kilkelly FX, McHale KA, Asplund LM, Mulligan M, Chang AS. Measurement of lumbar lordosis. Evaluation of intraobserver, interobserver, and technique variability. Spine. Jul 1 1996;21(13):1530-1535; discussion 1535-1536.
33. O'Leary S, Jull G, Kim M, Vicenzino B. Cranio-cervical flexor muscle impairment at maximal, moderate, and low loads is a feature of neck pain. Manual therapy. Feb 2007;12(1):34-39.
34. Mayoux-Benhamou MA, Revel M, Vallee C, Roudier R, Barbet JP, Bargy F. Longus colli has a postural function on cervical curvature. Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA. 1994;16(4):367-371.
35. Jull G, Kristjansson E, Dall'Alba P. Impairment in the cervical flexors: a comparison of whiplash and insidious onset neck pain patients. Manual therapy. May 2004;9(2):89-94.
36. Barton PM, Hayes KC. Neck flexor muscle strength, efficiency, and relaxation times in normal subjects and subjects with unilateral neck pain and headache. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Jul 1996;77(7):680-687.
37. Cagnie B, Dolphens M, Peeters I, Achten E, Cambier D, Danneels L. Use of muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare cervical flexor activity between patients with whiplash-associated disorders and people who are healthy. Physical therapy. Aug 2010;90(8):1157-1164.
38. Vasavada AN, Li S, Delp SL. Influence of muscle morphometry and moment arms on the moment-generating capacity of human neck muscles. Spine. Feb 15 1998;23(4):412-422.
39. Kamibayashi LK, Richmond FJ. Morphometry of human neck muscles. Spine. Jun 15 1998;23(12):1314-1323.
40. Jesus FM, Ferreira PH, Ferreira ML. Ultrasonographic measurement of neck muscle recruitment: a preliminary investigation. The Journal of manual & manipulative therapy. 2008;16(2):89-92.
41. Cagnie B, Barbe T, Vandemaele P, Achten E, Cambier D, Danneels L. MRI analysis of muscle/fat index of the superficial and deep neck muscles in an asymptomatic cohort. European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. May 2009;18(5):704-709.
42. Kristjansson E. Reliability of ultrasonography for the cervical multifidus muscle in asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects. Manual therapy. May 2004;9(2):83-88.
43. Jull G, Amiri M, Bullock-Saxton J, Darnell R, Lander C. Cervical musculoskeletal impairment in frequent intermittent headache. Part 1: Subjects with single headaches. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. Jul 2007;27(7):793-802.
44. Sterling M, Jull G, Vicenzino B, Kenardy J, Darnell R. Physical and psychological factors predict outcome following whiplash injury. Pain. Mar 2005;114(1-2):141-148.
45. Sterling M, Jull G, Vicenzino B, Kenardy J, Darnell R. Development of motor system dysfunction following whiplash injury. Pain. May 2003;103(1-2):65-73.
46. Sterling M, Jull G, Kenardy J. Physical and psychological factors maintain long-term predictive capacity post-whiplash injury. Pain. May 2006;122(1-2):102-108.
47. Lee SH, Kim KT, Seo EM, Suk KS, Kwack YH, Son ES. The influence of thoracic inlet alignment on the craniocervical sagittal balance in asymptomatic adults. Journal of spinal disorders & techniques. Apr 2012;25(2):E41-47.
48. Jull GA, Falla D, Vicenzino B, Hodges PW. The effect of therapeutic exercise on activation of the deep cervical flexor muscles in people with chronic neck pain. Manual therapy. Dec 2009;14(6):696-701.
49. Gong W. Impact of longus colli muscle massage on the strength and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscle of adults. Journal of physical therapy science. May 2013;25(5):591-593.