Redundancy was built into the CNS from the beginning—standby Honored Guest, substitute speakers, back up Presiding Officers, Hosts and Meeting Workers appointed in pairs, duplicate equipment (projectors, chart holders, screens, pointers, easels, etc.).

Principle: expect everything about a meeting to go wrong and prepare for it—that is Redundancy! (Members will report it as the best organized meeting they ever attended, while the redundancy monitors become basket cases).